Clerodendrum Serratum: Best Herb for Respiratory Problem (Blue Glory)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. Common Names

3. Vernacular Names

4. Synonyms

5. Classical Categorization

6. Distribution

7. Morphology

8. Ayurvedic Properties

9.Chemical Constituent

10. Identity, Purity, and Strength

11. Ayurvedic and Pharmacological Actions

12. Health Benefits

13. Therapeutic Uses

14. Official Part Used

15. General Doses

16. Formulations

1. Introduction

The Clerodendrum (Hidi Name – Bharangi) of Verbenaceae family is a diverse genus with about 560 to 580 species of small trees, shribs, or occasionally perennial herbs, mostly found in the tropics and subtropics region of the world. The term “Bharangi” indicates its effectiveness in respiratory tract disorders like kasa and shwasa. Sushruta and Bhavamishra has described this plant particularly for respiratory complaints like cold, bronchitis, bronchial, asthma and tuberculosis as it effectively liquefies the mucus.

Roots and leaves of Clerodendrum have great medicinal value and are claimed to be useful in pain, inflammation, rheumatism, respiratory disorders, and fever especially in malarial fever. Therapeutic potential of roots and leaves of Clerodendrum has been demonstrated in the conditions like asthma, allergy, fever, inflammation, and liver disorders attributed to the presence of various flavonoids, phenolics, and saponins present in the drug.

Ethnomedicinal reports have also advocated Clerodendrum as one of the potential traditional medicines in India claimed for the treatment of asthma, inflammation, wounds, snake bite, liver disease, fever and headache.

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2. Common Names

Family – Verbenaceae

Hindi Name – Bharangi, Babhneti

English Name – Blue glory, Beetle killer

3. Vernacular Names

Bengali – Bamun hatee

Gujrati – Bharangee

Kannada – Gantubarangee

Malayalam – Cheruteku

Marathi – Bharangee

Oriya – Chinds

Tamil – Bhadangee

Telugu – Ganttubrarangee

Urdu - Bharangi

4. Synonyms

Angaarvalli – A plant grows wild.

Bhangura – The wood breaks easily.

Bharangi – It alleviates disease like kasa.

Bhrugubhava – It is originated from sage in Himalayas.

Kharapuspa – The flowers are rough.

Kharashaka – The leaves are rough.

Phanji – the stick of this plant is useful.

Vatari – It is useful in vatik disorders.

5. Classical Categorization

  • Charaka Samhita – Krimighna
  • Sushrut Samhita – Pippalyadi, Arkadi
  • Ashtanga Sangraha – Pippalyadi
  • Ashtanga - Hridaya - Arkadi, Surasadi
  • Dhanvantari Nighantu – Guduchyadi varga
  • Madanpal Nighantu – Abhayadi varga
  • Kaiyadev Nighantu – Oushadhi varga
  • Raj Nighantu – Pippalyadi varga
  • Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Haritakiyadi varga

6. Distribution

Clerodendrum is found throughout India, in forest up to 1,500m altitude. It is reported to be rare and endangered in Gujrat. In India, it is especially found in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, forests of Kerla, Konkan region of Maharashtra.

7. Morphology

It is a perennial woody shrub of 1 to 2m of height.

Stem – Woody, not much branched, bluntly quadrangular, and younger parts are glabrous.

Leaves – Simple, or in whorl of three at node, subsessile, obovate, base cuneate, 4 to 10 inches long, shortly acuminate, base cuneate, serrated margin, thick and coriaceous. Leaves are attached to with sharp, pulpy and oily thorns.

Flowers – Numerous, sightly fragrant, pale blue to purple in color, in terminal inflorescence of 8 to 10 inches, pubescent, dichotomous cymes with pair of acute bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. They are bisexual, zygomorphic, rarely sub-actinomorphic and bracteolate or not. Corolla with a slender tube, five lobes, spreading, stamens epipetalous, four or two, free, one another or two-celled usually dehiscing longitudinally, discpersistent. Ovary superior, two-celled and each cell is two-ovule and style subterminal and gynobasic.

Fruits – Four-lobed purple drupe with 5 to 14 mm length and 5 to 8 mm width and usually separating into pyrenes at maturity, appears in group, obovoid shape, somewhat succulent and purple black color on ripening four-seeded.

Seeds – Oblong with little or no endosperm.

Roots – Mature root hard, woody up to 5 cm thick, cylindrical, outer surface light brown with lenticels.

8. Ayurvedic Properties

Rasa (Taste): It has Katu, Tikta, Kashya (bitter, astrigent) taste.

Virya (Potency): It is ushna in nature (hot).

Vipaka (Post-digestive taste): The post-digestive taste is katu (bitter).

9. Chemical Constituent

Major chemical constituents present in the root and leaves of Clerodendrum are carbohydrates, phenols, terpenes, flavonoids and steroids. Its roots have D-mannitol, hispidulin, apigenin, glucuronides, scutellarin, oleanic acid, ferulic acid, arabinose and urosolic acid.

10. Identity, Purity, and Strength

Foreign Matter – Not more than 2%

Total Ash – Not more than 11%

Acid-insoluble ash – Not more than 1%

Alcohol-soluble extractive – Not less than 6%

Water-soluble extractive – Not less than 12%

(Source: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India 2001)

11. Ayurvedic and Pharmacological Actions

Ayurvedic Action

The actions of Bharangi are as carminative, digestive, improves taste, pacify vata and kapha and antiasthmatic.

  • Doshakarma – Kapha vatahara
  • Dhatukarma – Raktashodhan
  • Malakarma - Shwedajanana

Pharmacological Action

Various pharmacological actions of Clerodendrum are antiallergic, antiasthmatic, antibacterial, wound healing, antiulcer, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiangiogenic and antibacterial.

12. Health Benefits

It is useful in the treatment of asthma, respiratory problems, bleeding disorders, inflammation, chronic cough, coryza and fever. Roots are used for the treatment of bronchitis, asthma, fever, tumour, inflammation, burning sensation, epilepsy, malaria, ulcer and wound. Root and leaf extract of Clerodendrum have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, asthma, and other inflammatory disease.

The root juice with ginger is used to relieve bronchospasma in asthma and reduce the attacks of dyspena while the root powder is given along with sugar or as jam in hic-cough.

The decoction of root is extremely effective in edema over body, especially due to kapha and is used in worm infestation while decoction of sesame seeds mixed with ghee, jaggery, Clerodendrum root powder and Trikatu powder is used as the best remedy for amenorrhea and uterine tumour. The root paste ahs been applied on forehead to alleviate headache. The leaves are used in burning sensation and fever and are boiled in oil or ghee for external application in ophthalmia.

13. Therapeutic Uses

Cervical Lymphadinitic – Clerodendrum root paste with rice water is applied locally in cervical.

Accidental Wounds – Root of Clerodendrum pounded with water applied by locally in accidental wounds.

Asthma – Clerodendrum should be taken with honey or ghee. Or it should be taken with ginger and sugar with hot water.

Chronic Cough – Ghee prepared with Clerodendrum paste, four times curd and double quantity of Bandhuka decoction is an excellent remedy.

Alcoholism – Barh is taken with water boiled with Clerodendrum.

Fever – Decoction of Clerodendrum, ginger or Vacha is used twice daily. Its leaves are eaten as vegetable in malaria.

Inflammation – Regular consumption of Clerodendrum is recommended in inflammation.

14. Official Part Used

Roots and leaves

15. Doses

Powder – 3 to 6 g

Decoction – 40 to 80 ml

16. Formulations

Bharangi guda, Bharangi avleha, Bharangyadi kwath, Bharangi sura, Ayaskriti, Kanakasava, Dashmoolarista, Rasanadi kwath churna, Dhanvantara ghrita, Maha vatagajankusa rasa.

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