Coriander – Introduction, Health Benefits, Uses, and Side Effects of Dhaniya / Coriandrum Sativum – 2022

Introduction

Coriander’s scientific name is Coriandrum Sativum, its Hindi name is Dhaniya, it is an annual and perennial herb. The leaves and seeds are rich in calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, and vitamin C, and the dried ripe coriander seeds have an agreeable spicy taste and a pleasant aroma.

CORIANDER LEAF

Coriander produces a considerable quantity of nectar that attracts insects, bees, and moths, a study shows that honeybees can produce up to 500 kg of honey from a hectare of coriander.

Egyptians and Greeks symbol believed coriander was an aphrodisiac, and it was regarded as a symbol of eternal love. In the Bible, the spice is compared to manna, a gum exudate that was a source of substance for the Jews during their exile from Egypt.

coriander seeds

Morphology of Coriander

The coriander stem is feeble, smooth, and light green, and the leaves are compound, thin, alternate, and easily breakable. The flowers are arranged in umbels, fruits are spherical- green when tender and brownish-yellow when ripe, and have a sweet fragrance that is used as a spice.

Habitat

Coriander is a native of the Mediterranean region, where it has been grown since ancient times, it is extensively cultivated in Europe, North Africa, India, South America, Malaysia, Thailand, and China. It thrives in black soil and arid regions. It is chiefly cultivated in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Bihar.

The main exporters of coriander are Ukraine, Russia, India, and Morocco, and the main importers are the USA, Sri Lanka, and Japan, followed by Malaysia, Chile, Bolivia, and some countries in the Middle East.

Nutritional Value of Coriander

It is rich in serval food elements, and analysis of coriander leaves shows moisture at 86.3%, protein at 3.3%, fat at 0.6%, minerals at 2.3%, fiber at 1.2%, and carbohydrates at 6.3% per 100 grams. The minerals and vitamin content include calcium, phosphorus, iron, carotene, thiamine, potassium, and oxalic acid, their calorific value is 44.

An analysis of seeds shows 11.2% moisture, protein 14.1%, fat 16.1%, minerals 4.4%, fiber 32.6%, and carbohydrates 21.6% per 100gm. Their mineral and vitamin contents include calcium, phosphorus, iron, carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin. The calorific value is 288.

The essential oil content of ripe and dried fruits of coriander varies from 0.03 to 2.6% and fatty oil from 9.9% to 27.7%. The essential oil is extracted through steam distillation and used in food and cosmetics.

Health Benefits of Coriander

The leaves of coriander are a stimulant and a tonic, they strengthen the stomach and promote its action, relieve flatulence, increase secretion, and discharge of urine, and reduce fever. They also help remove catarrhal matter and phlegm from the bronchial tubes, counteracting spasmodic disorders and acting as an aphrodisiac. Coriander seeds reduce fever and promote a feeling of coolness. The juice is highly beneficial in deficiencies of vitamins A, B, C, and iron.

Traditionally, coriander is used in the preparation of many household medicines to treat colds, fever, nausea, vomiting, indigestion, worms, rheumatism, epilepsy, anxiety, insomnia, and joint pain. In India, the fruits are used as a carminative, diuretic, tonic, and stomachic, as well as antibilious, refrigerant, and aphrodisiac.

Coriander has anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anxiolytic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, and neuroprotective properties.

Uses of Coriander

The plant is a popular spice in cuisines worldwide, the leaves and seeds are often ground into a powder and used as a condiment. In India, it is an essential spice in Indian homes used in curry powders, pickling spices, baked goods, meats, fish, and tobacco products.

In Ethiopia, coriander is used to add flavor to Berbere, a spicy pepper blend used in meat and vegetarian dishes. Coriander also flavors alcoholic beverages like gin and is said to enhance the inebriating effect. The famous Russian rye bread (Borodinskij Chleb) is spiced with coriander. In China, roots are used in cuisine.

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Here are some health benefits with Uses

Conjunctivitis

A decoction prepared from freshly dried coriander is an excellent eyewash in conjunctivitis, it relieves burnings, swelling, and pain.

Digestive Disorders

One or two tsp of coriander juice added to fresh buttermilk is beneficial in treating indigestion, nausea, dysentery, hepatitis, and ulcerative colitis. It is also helpful in typhoid fever, dry coriander treats diarrhea and chronic dysentery, as well as being useful in acidity. A chutney made from dry coriander, green chilies, grated coconut, ginger, and black grapes without seeds is a household remedy for abdominal pain caused by indigestion.

Excessive Menstrual Flow

A decoction of coriander seeds taken regularly checks excessive menstrual flow, the decoction is prepared thus: six grams of seeds are boiled in half a liter of water till only half remains, and sugar is added to taste and taken while still warm.

High Cholesterol Levels

Regular drinking of coriander water helps lower blood cholesterol, is a good diuretic, and stimulates the kidneys. It is prepared by boiling dry seeds of coriander and straining the decoction after cooling.

Skin Disorders

A tsp of coriander juice, mixed with a pinch of turmeric powder, is an effective remedy for pimples, blackheads, and dry skin. The mixture should be applied to the face after washing it thoroughly every night before retiring.

Smallpox

One tsp fresh coriander juice mixed with 1 or 2 seeds of banana given once daily regularly for a week is effective and preventive against smallpox.

Other Uses

Young plants of coriander are used in chutneys, sauces, curries, and soups, the volatile oil in it is used for flavoring and in medicine. In the dried dorm, coriander is an important ingredient of curry powder and is also used in pickling spices, sausages, seasoning, confectionery, and flavoring spirits, particularly gin.

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Side Effects of Coriander

All Ayurveda herbs are plant-based and don’t have any side effects, but they may react with some allopathy or homeopathy medicine. It is better to consult the doctor if you are on any medications or have unique health issues.

Dry coriander should be sparingly used by persons suffering from bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis.


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