Crataeva Nurvaula: Best Herb for Urinary Calculus and Blood Purifier (Three-leaved Creeper)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. Common Names

3. Vernacular Names

4. Synonyms

5. Classical Categorization

6. Distribution

7. Morphology

8. Types

9. Ayurvedic Properties

10. Chemical Constituent

11. Identity, Purity, and Strength

12. Ayurvedic and Pharmacological Actions

13. Health Benefits

14.Therapeutic Uses

15. Official Part Used

16. General Doses

17. Side Effects

18. Formulations

1. Introduction

Crataeva Nurvaula commonly known as Varuna, is an evergreen tree indigenous to India. It is a medium-sized, branched, deciduous plant distributed throughout the riverbanks of southern India and other tropical, subtropical countries of the world, wild or cultivated. It requires dry, hot climate and shady places to grow effectively.

The whole plant possesses high medicinal value and traditionally is used internally as well as externally. Varuna is one of the best litholytic herbs and has been used throughout the ages for the treatment of urolithiasis and crystalluria.

Crataeva Nurvaula is mentioned in Vedic literature, its therapeutic use being known to ancient Ayurvedic physicians, especially as a blood purifier, to maintain homeostasis.

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2. Common Names

Family – Capparidaceae

Hindi Name – Varun, Baruna

English Name – Three-leaved-vreeper

3. Vernacular Names

Bengali – Varuna

Gujrati – Vayvarno

Kannada – Bipatri, Bitusi

Malayalam – Neermatalam

Marathi – Varun, Nirvala

Kashmiri – Kath

Tamil – Maralingam

Telugu – Ulimidi

Oriya – Baryno

4. Synonyms

Ashmarighna – It removes urinary calculus.

Bahupushpa – It is covered with flowers.

Tiktashaka – It is bitter in taste.

Varun – It is useful in gulma.

5. Classical Categorization

Charaka Samhita – Not mentioned in any varga.

Sushrut Samhita – Varunadi

Ashtang Sangraha – Varunadi

Dhanvantari Nighantu – Amradi varga

Madanpal Nighantu – Vatadi varga

Kaiyadev Nighantu – Aushadi varga

Raj Nighantu – Prabhadradi varga

Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Vatadi varga

6. Distribution

Crataeva Nurvaula is often cultivated throughout India, especially along the streams and riverbank. It is distributed in sub-Himalayas and is indigenous to Tamil Nadu, Kerla, and Karnataka. It is found in abundance in Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and Assam.

7. Morphology

It is moderately sized deciduous tree.

Bark – 5 to 15 mm thickness, outer surface grey to greyish brown, many small and rounded lenticels. Inner surface-smooth, whitish-brown.

Leaves – Trifoliate, leaflets ovate, lanceolate or obovate, glabrous on both surfaces.

Flower – White to milky-white, 5 to 8 mm in diameter, polygamous, and fragrant in dense terminal corymbs, stamens spreading longer than the petals, gynophore about 5 cm long.

Fruit – Fleshy, ovoid berry with a hard rough rind, 2.5 cm in diameter, brown seeds are embedded in the yellow fleshy pulp of the fruit.

8. Ayurvedic Properties

Rasa (Taste): It has Tikta, Kasaya, Madhura in taste.

Virya (Potency): It is ushna in nature (hot).

Vipaka (Post-digestive taste): The post-digestive taste is katu (bitter).

Guna – Laghu, Ruksha

9. Chemical Constituent

Crataeva Nurvaula is found to be rich alkaloids, flavonoids, glucosinolates, phytosterols, saponins, triterpenoids. A wide variety of medicinally important compounds have been reported from Crataeva Nurvaula.

Fruit – ceryl alcohol, cetyl, glucocapparin, octanamide, pentadecane, triacontane.

Leaves – Dodecanoic, anhydride, glucocapparin, methyl pentacosanoate.

Root Bark – Alkaloids, betulinic acid, cadabicine diacetate, ceryl alcohol, diosgenin, flavonoids, friedelin, lupeol, phytosterols, rutin, saponins and varunol.

Stem Bark – Betulinic acid, cadabicine diacetate, cadabicine, ceryl alcohol, crataemine, diosgenin, friedelin, lupeol and its acetate, quercetin rutin.

10. Identity, Purity, and Strength

Foreign Matter – Not more than 2%

Total Ash – Not more than 13%

Acid-insoluble ash – Not more than 1%

Alcohol-soluble extractive – Not less than 1%

Water-soluble extractive – Not less than 8%

(Source: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India 1990)

11. Ayurvedic and Pharmacological Actions

Ayurvedic Action

According to Ayurveda Crataeva Nurvaula has cholagogue, appetizer, laxative, anthelminitic and vermicide.

  • Doshakarma – Kaphavatahara, Pittavardhaka
  • Dhatukarma – Raktashodhak
  • Malakarma - Bhedana

Pharmacological Action

The pharmacological action of Crataeva Nurvaula is analgesic, antiarthritic, antidiabetic, antiarthritic, anticancer, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antinociceptive, antiprotozoal, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, hyper-oxaluria, urolithic and wound-healing activities. Leaves are bitter, acrid, thermogenic, stomachic, depurative, demulcent, anti-inflammatory, tonic, antiperiodic and expectorant.

12. Health Benefits

It is used in urinary calculus, abdominal lump, dysuria, abscess, gout, worm infestation. The skin, roots and leaves of Crataeva Nurvaula have a great medicinal value. The plant is used internally as well as externally. It is externally applied to abscess, boils, carbuncles, and lymphadenopathy. They are used in flatulence, emesis, indigestion, obesity, and are externally applied as poultice over boils, carbuncles, abscess and scrofula.

The decoction of root or bark is beneficial in urinary calculus, dysuria, and cystitis. It is useful in anorexia, tumors, liver disease, flatulent, dyspepsia, helminthiasis, gout, internal abscess and obesity.

13. Therapeutic Uses

Urinary Calculus – Decoction of root bark of Crataeva Nurvaula is given with jaggery to expel out the calculus and alleviate pain in pelvis.

Abscess – Decoction of root of white Purnarnava and Crataeva Nurvaula should be taken to control the unripe abscess.

Cervical Lymphadenitis – Decoction of Crataeva Nurvaula root with honey helps to cure, even if chronic.

Piles – Decoction of Crataeva Nurvaula leaves is useful as tub-bath for piles.

Freckles - Crataeva Nurvaula bark pounded with goat’s milk destroys freckles.

14. Official Part Used

Bark and leaf

15. Doses

Powder – 1 to 2 g

Decoction – 50 to 100ml

16. Side Effects

Tropical application of the leaves of Crataeva Nurvaula was reported to cause redness and blistering on rodents. The decoctions of the root bark and stem bark appear to be well tolerated.

17. Formulations

Varunadi taila, Varunadi ghrita, Varunadi kwath, Kachanara guggulu, Majistadyarista, Mahamajistadyarista, Ashmarihara kashaya.

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